Razors and soundless Dishes
August Grämlich is a friend of Hermann Papst, for whose company he invents an electric razor. The razor is produced in Grämlich’s company and sold with moderate success. The contract they signed on April 23, 1931 shows the progress in development and the advantage for costumers of the “Elrasor”. Its mode of operation is based on the principle of a whipping and pulling cut, similar to the one known from a lawn mower. The blade accomplishes about a hundred small movements per second, at a slant to the edge.
The cutting of the hair occurs through a sudden chopping with a simultaneous pulling movement of the blade, while damaging the skin is made almost impossible through the minimal movement of the blade.
On the contrary: the shaking mode of operation of the blade on the skin is rather pleasant.
Hermann Papst hardly ever worries about the marketing of his products (mostly common vendor parts anyway, which are not sold directly on the market, but to factories which use them for further production).
The following description/advertisement of the “Elrasor” was found in a brochure:
The special advantage of the “Elrasor-Method” compared to other common razors is provided by the very high frequency of the blades small movements, through which the hair does not have enough time to get out of the way or flatten, because the layers of skin can’t react as fast as the blade moves. In this way the hair is cut vertically and with ease.
This special method of the vertical cutting, results in the smooth removal of hair by only having to do a single shave. An additional shaving is not necessary anymore, even with a low priced blade that’s only partially sharpening.
Without considering the lack of interest Hermann Papst showed for market success (which usually turned out to be a disadvantage for him), designing and manufacturing the “Elrasor” gave him important insights and experiences concerning small, low-noise electric motors, which are run with an electricity consumption of 5 watt and in this case two different versions with the usual alternating current light line voltage of 100 to 130 or 160 to 260 volts.
The so called “Telerapid” device for independent dialing of predetermined phone connections, was a mechanical speed dialing apparatus for 50 predetermined telephone numbers with lined up programmed disks, which were removably attached to the phone still allowing for their rotation. These disks with adaptable profiles triggered the procedure of dialing by each controlling a single contact. The device was created in the 1930s and was firstly produced in large numbers of several thousand by the company “Steidinger Brothers”, later on by a Swiss company (Autophon AG Solothurn).
(German Patent 580 656, 586979 and 616281, all of them registered in 1931).
Lever Wind for Cameras
The company Leitz in Wetzlar has given the Steidinger Brothers company in Sankt Georgen the task to bulid a flangable lever wind for their camera “Leica, Modell 1937″. By using this lever wind for the camera, one could take several pictures within a short span of time (e.g. Sports-Pictures), without having to wind the film manually, which took a lot more time. To express their gratitude towards Hermann Papst for the invention, he even received a Leitz microscope in recognition of his successful design.
Gramophone Drive with ironless Rotor
Hermann Papst has designed the gramophone twin drive, consisting of a spring drive and an electric motor, and has added an ironless rotor to the Dual Drive. The Dual Drive is equipped with a stationary, electrically excited field magnet. Since rigidly baking of wires was not known yet, it was built on a thin, deep-drawn brass mantle, carrying the bandaged coils. So one could say it is a precursor of the still successfully used ironless direct current electric compact motors.
This dual drive later on lend the company “Steidinger Brothers” its name “DUAL”. About 400.000 drives were manufactured and integrated in portable complete gramophone cases.
Usually the rotors of Hysteresis Motors are massiv, tubular steel alloys which have to be brought into shape through complex grinding, because of their hardness. The invention describes layers of material out of annular sections. These are rolled or drawn in a way to create a, magnetically favoured, rolled- or drawn structure. They are pressed into an aluminium external rotor. A high magnetic resistance occurs at the joints, supporting the synchronism of the motor. The annual sections can also be slotted to optimize the effect of the synchronization. Hundreds of thousands of these Hysteresis Synchron motors were manufactured according to this principle as “External Rotor Motors”. They were mostly used in audio and video systems / (consumer electronic devices).
(German Patent 1 139 197, April 08, 1954)
To protect the needle and the system of a Phono Pickup Hermann Papst proposes a scanning system, in which the phono pickup housing is supported easily pivotable. The housing can sit on top of the sound recording media,while the scanning system is lifted thereby. Accordingly the needle only requires a small amount of pressure to be guided securely in the groove.
(German Patent 885 315, 1st of January 1939)
The main idea was to create a 5-Speed-Transmission, which was supposed to be very compact and to equip every gear with a hydraulic clutch. Thus the mechanic clutch for changing the gear could be ommited. Disk-shaped annular clutches were arranged inside of the individual wheel hubs, to have the supplied hydraulic fluid spread the annular clutches and wheel hubs with high contact pressure, so that a torque transmission at the flat end face of the annular clutch is provided.
A great number of designs and constructive improvements led to a sophisticated transmission, which for financial reasons was never built. (German Patent 761 979)
Throughout his life Hermann Papst always wanted to improve the, in mass application still undefeated Lead Accumulator. He once suggested embedding the entire group of electrodes in plaster for example. Thereby almost unlimited loading cycles are possible, because the reacting agent is secured in the cell- pockets, through which the battery offers a much longer life span. The large pore volume (86% for certain types of plaster) inside of the plaster grid, absorbs the acid very space efficiently (German Patent 1 287 662). Relating to this concept, Hermann Papst proposed a special connection technology, enabling the improvement of the recycling of the accumulator (German Patent 1 671 875).
Taken from his broad range of ideas an example for many others:
Hermann Papst suggests the evacuation of the storage rooms when food or organic material (for example wheat) is stored for long terms and is endangered to be soiled by the effects of oxygen, dehydration or vermin as a preservation method. This should be achieved through using a suction device in connection to a water steam source so that the storage container is at least under a partial pressure of the water steam. Like that the stored goods won’t be drained of their moisture. Apparently the container also has to be regulated in regard to the temperature. (German Patent 1 492 672).
Transferring Colour Images on Television
In 1938 the proposed procedure of transferring colour images on television is meant to work without three times the amount of graphical symbols, which was necessary for the colour transmission with the “Braun’sche Röhre” at that time. A revolving colour filter was to be used to change partial images generated by linefeed, to the filter colours. This invention is acknowledged in the book “Männer der Funktechnik” of the VDE publishing house.
Mercury High Pressure Lamp
A high melting point crystal is clamped pressure resistantly, between two electrodes. The radiating material is added before the assembly and its light density is optimized by ultra-high pressure. This adds up to an extremely punctuale light source, which emits white, constant light with a grand operational safety. This way for example headlights, can be significantly simplified and reduced in size.
This invention is intended to connect the windings of the electric drive motor, which drives the compressor, in series with the windings of the motor, which is employed for cooling the heat exchanger. Both motors are designed transformer-fed for low voltage, and due to a dense copper filling stand for highest efficiency.
To avoid frozen sirens from frost or ice formations, Hermann Papst suggested a special arrangement of the impeller and the corresponding air outlet.
The impeller, surrounded by an encasing with air outlet openings, is arranged to limit two surfaces of the parts facing each other only a gap width apart, to the outer edge of the impellers air outlet and casing. This solution was created during the Second World War and patented on March 28, 1944 (German Patent 911 953).
Gear Switch Mechanism for a car with internal Combustion Engin and Electric Motor
This invention provides a solution for an automatic transmission, which employs an electric motor as a generator as well as a starter (for starting the internal combustion engine and for driving at low speed). A travelling nut establishes the respective operating mode. In 1970 a hybrid drive was tested on a converted vehicle according to this concept.
Process and use of Gasturbines
This invention was meant to improve the efficiency of gas turbines, especially by releaving the machines of their compression load. This can be achieved by letting the turbines run with a larger relaxation than the compressor/ compression gradient. The heat extraction preferably occurs before the diffuser of the turbine. That way the diffuser can work at a moderate temperature without a lot of excess air. The economic efficiency improvement this arrangement results from the load savings through the heat extraction of a combustion chamber with minimal heat loss and especially by savings in compressor power. This principle was created for mobile devices also passenger cars and trucks. (German Patent 913 719, registration on 28th of March 1939).
This invention is an affordable concerns design of a stator for an external rotor motor. The iron loss of an internal squirrel-cage rotor is comparably high, because the iron volume of the external exciting winding, in its magnetic frame, that has to go through a change of magnetization, is larger. Using the external motor rotor principle, the stator comprises less iron and therefore reduces the iron losses. Furthermore a pole piece ring above the pulled coil optimizes the torque characteristics and reduces noise.
DC Mini Motor
The design of this motor is based on a bell type anchor designed as a ring coil, which is held by a nonmagnetic cup casing and rotates above an iron – nickel magnet. A multipart collector is responsible for the feed-in. A sensitive centrifugal switch helps to achieve a control accuracy of less than 0.2 % speed deviation. The motor was used for off grid devices, with high demands, for example in medical technology or precision engineering devices. It was built in medium volumes.
Efficient Street System
To achieve a relaxation of traffic and provide sustainable saftey, Hermann Papst suggests adding additional passing lanes to our street system. The slow traffic, especially trucks, small cars and buses, was supposed to be lead over onto those tracks, which would be built in certain intervals. The traffic density would decrease through the easier passing of the fast traffic. This idea (registration on June 6, 1959) should prevent dangerous situations, when overtaking another car. Both lanes should experience an improvement through these additional lanes.
Transmission of High Voltage Lines
Extra High Voltage Lines (e. g. 40 kV or more) show the known corona losses, which force the constructer to choose a widest possible diameter for the lines. But material expenses, weight and wiring difficulties prevent counter this approach. The following invention recommends the usage of a wave guide, transported and installed as a flat, seamless tube. It is given its round shape through pressure after the instalment. To avoid strength problems, the inside is equipped with suspension cables.
Fail-safe car tires
With Air escaping from car tires stronger bending – and sheer stress is caused while driving. The flanks fold under the axle pressure while the car is continuing to roll and the casing would be destroyed within short, because the edges of the rim have the effect of a cutting blade. To prevent this destruction of tires, Hermann Papst suggested a stiff ring mounted on the inner side of the tire. At its inner flanks the tire beads should be fastened. The ring should advantageously have a T-, or an oval profile.
A Farming Machine automatically loading Grass, Hay or Harvestet Crops
To reduce manual labour, a blower, propelled by a driving tractor, is suggested to load grass, hay or harvested crops onto an attached trailer. The receiving hopper is designed in a special way, guided over the ground and equipped with guided blades sideways, so that the chopped off crops are collected automatically inside of the hopper by the driving – movement and pulled in by the air flow.
He also pursued the following projects:
Machines for money counting, grinding spindle, Weitwurfrolle, beam guide antenna, Spin dryer, concrete compactor, sound absorbing panels, production of enamel wire, ultrasonic transducers, flashlight, free wheel clutch, capacitor, disk grinder, everlasting phono pickup, snow plowing, compressor unit, oil burner pump, chuck, magnetic power meter, draught protection, fire extinguisher, inhalator, plaster, frost protection for plants, Methods for faster spinning, grain silo, solar heater for swimming pools, Apparatus for dew formation, plain collector, electrostatic loudspeaker, construction sheet metal plate for, progressive roll bar spring, glass based building material, detachable clutch, ball bearing, pipe manufacturing, safety glass pane, motor vehicle propulsion for watercrafts, safety steering, air lift garage, Ventilation and Heating for motor vehicles, parking disk, wheel axle for railway, tracks for railway, mirror system for cars, seatbelt, windshield wipers, headlights, shock absorber, tachometer, fuel tank, car door lock, vehicle jack, inflatable rotor for sailing ships, spacecraft, electromagnetic railway, aircraft – noise prevention, electric counter, small dynamo, electric switch, Alu minimum band fitting , quick-silver switch, low voltage motor, rectifier, motorized branch-saw, elevator motor, ceiling fan, kitchen machine, humidifier, air purifier, landing break for airplanes, doorknob, vacuum container, icing, electrical night storage heater, refrigeration compressor, explosion safe pump motor for fuel pump, electric lock, Halogen Lamp, traffic lighting, bridge slab, dune- and slope barricade, window, Snow- and ice free streets, gallery extension, swimming pool design, radiant heating, pencil with mine, flower pot system, stamp machine, book cover, electric lighter, soundless dishes, electrical hot air device, safety helmet, electric stove, kaleidoscope, toilet, tie rack, kitchen scale, air mattress, razor blade manufacturing, suitcase, roller skates, sport device, dust mask, heat mat, work out device, mechanical clock, Heat pump, Underwear, faucet, dental prosthesis, tooth pics, drafting board, adapter plug, bed with air conditioning, prism roof, safety door, lawn mower, whetstone drive, dial, miniature camera, slide projector, sewing without a thread, prefab house, Key-system, Seat, Heating oil tank, Chair, fresh-air breathing apparatus, electrode for fuel element, worm pump, strainer, dental drill cooling, relay, creating crystals, blasting-method, socket connector, bottle closure, misting device, synthetic diamonds, Toilet paper, folder, gas lock, ball pen, tape recorder, slide frame, towel rail, tumble dryer, telephone without a fork.